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Infection pathways

Airborne. Pathogens are contained in tiny drops that form when a person sneezes and coughs..

The infection spreading in this way enters the respiratory tract of a healthy person along with air. You can get sick if you are near the patient for some time (for example, in the same room, transport, etc.).

Refusal to visit crowded places at the peak of the “cold season” helps reduce the risk of infection.

Contact. Viral infections are also transmitted through a handshake with a cold person or objects on which pathogens remain. For example, you can get infected using common dishes or a towel. The virus first enters the skin of the hands, and then into the respiratory tract. Careful personal hygiene helps reduce the risk of infection through household items..

Pneumococcal Vaccination

The primary source of pneumococcal infection are bacteria of pneumococcus, more than 90 serotypes of them. Invasive pneumococcal infection, which causes pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, sepsis, arthritis, is considered dangerous. Risk groups are people over 60 years old, as well as children under the age of 5 years. The source of infection is a sick person or a carrier of the pathogen. The disease is transmitted by drip. The incubation time is short, within 1-3 days.

Vaccination against pneumococcal infection with a polysaccharide vaccine is given to people in medical institutions and nursing homes, as well as for long-term patients. In addition, immunization against pneumococcal infection is indicated for patients suffering from chronic diseases of the respiratory system, diseases of the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and insulin treatment of diabetes. Patients after organ transplantation, people with cancer, and long-term immunosuppressive therapy should be vaccinated..

For vaccination, the 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing serotype 13 polysaccharide or the 23-valent vaccine is most commonly used..

With cystitis

Various pathogens can be the cause of bladder inflammation. In the event that it is not chlamydia, bactericidal drugs, for example, Nolicin, are prescribed for the treatment of cystitis. Vilprafen as a bacteriostatic agent is not as effective.

Treatment of cystitis with chlamydial infection (order augmentin):

  • 500 mg once;
  • 500 mg / 2 times a day.

Symptoms of lobar pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia is characterized by a sudden, acute onset. Among the early symptoms of the disease, general intoxication (the appearance of severe chills, then constant, for 7-10 days, a febrile state with a temperature rise above 39 ° C, headache, general weakness, sweating) and bronchopulmonary (shortness of breath, pleural pain on the affected side, associated with breathing, cough, sputum).

The temperature reaction of the body reflects the nature of the development of the inflammatory process in the lung: with uncomplicated lobar pneumonia, the daily temperature fluctuations are small (0.5-1 ° C); with the development of purulent-destructive and septic complications – more than 1-2 ° C with repeated chills; in elderly and debilitated patients – fever may be absent.

Pain in the chest with lobar pneumonia is acute and intense, has a clear localization, increases at the height of a deep breath and when the body is tilted to the healthy side, therefore breathing is often superficial.

The cough characteristic of lobar pneumonia in the first two days of the disease is dry and unproductive, often appears on a deep breath along with pleural pains; with the appearance of fibrinous exudate (3-4 days), a small amount of viscous, mucopurulent or “rusty” (with an admixture of blood) sputum begins to separate during coughing.

The severity of shortness of breath with lobar pneumonia depends on the stage and severity of the inflammatory process, the presence of a burdened history. Young patients usually experience a slight sensation of lack of air and tachypnea during exercise; in severe course of lobar pneumonia and concomitant diseases of the lungs and heart, acute respiratory failure (ARF) occurs with shortness of breath at rest, a painful feeling of lack of air, cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle.

Due to intoxication with lobar pneumonia, there is a rapid increase in general weakness, the development of adynamia, neurological symptoms: agitation, insomnia, delirium and hallucinations, loss of consciousness. Various functional disorders are often observed – severity in epigastrium, loss of appetite, flatulence, unstable stool, icteric staining of the skin, sclera of the eyes and mucous membranes, pain in muscles and joints, arrhythmia, tachycardia, dull heart sounds, decreased blood pressure, vascular and heart failure.

Based on the characteristics of the clinical picture, three forms of lobar pneumonia are distinguished: upper lobe, lower lobe and central.

  • In the upper lobe form, the course of the disease is severe with pronounced symptoms, hemodynamic and neurological disorders
  • In the lower lobe form – there is a pseudo-picture of an “acute abdomen” with fever, chills and “rusty” sputum
  • With the central form of lobar pneumonia, the inflammatory process develops deep in the pulmonary parenchyma and has mild symptoms.

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